Aral problems: regional and global measurement

The Central Asian region is rich in natural resources, unique ecosystems, rare and endemic species of flora and fauna. The Central Asia because of its vulnerability to climate challenges is earlier than other regions of the continent � in the middle of the last century, began to implement advanced techniques of desert development, to curb land degradation, to study the development of crop and livestock production in the arid climate, to develop norms of sustainable management.

The representatives of fundamental and agricultural science, employees of departmental research institutes are involved in this work in Turkmenistan. The sphere of accumulation and purification of polluted waters is developing in an innovative way in order to increase the profitability of agriculture in the conditions of climate aridization, elements of the "green" economy are introduced, and the level of greenhouse gas emissions is reduced. The construction of the Turkmen lake helps to stop collector discharges in the Amu Darya and improve the quality of its water in the lower reaches, as well as the state of irrigated lands in the Amu Darya oasis.

The solution of water problems, the assessment of possible climate changes affecting the filling of the rivers of Central Asia, is becoming increasingly important, and the hydrological regime in mountain ecosystems � a transboundary factor, including socio-economic and environmental aspects. The countries of the region are adapting to the new climatic realities, evaluate anthropogenic factors in water allocation. Long-term data on Hydrometeorology, watershed of the main rivers of Central Asia, desertification and salinization processes are analyzed to understand how the climate changes and with it the state of nature. Scientific and practical work includes monitoring of the Aral Sea region, which helps to predict climate change, biodiversity, water use.

The analytical data were used in the development of two important transboundary documents for the region, the preparation of which was initiated by Turkmenistan within the framework of the chairmanship of the international Fund for saving the Aral sea. These are the Regional program for environmental protection for sustainable development (RPEPSD) and Action Program to assist the countries of the Aral Sea basin (PASB-4).

The discussion of these draft documents will be held within the framework of the Summit of the heads of state � founders of the international Fund for saving the Aral Sea, which will be held on August 24 in Avaza. The meeting is held in the year of the 25th anniversary of IFAS, after a nine-year break. The last time the heads of state-founders of the Fund discussed the issues of the Aral Sea region in Astana in 2009.

As reported in the Executive Committee of the Fund on the agenda of the upcoming talks in Avaza - preparation of the RPEPSD and ASBP-4. Attention will be paid to the promotion of the framework Convention on environmental protection for sustainable development in Central Asia. These decisions are intended to give new impetus to the work of the Fund. On the eve of the Summit will be held meetings of interstate commissions on sustainable development and coordination of water management-ICSD and ICWC, as well as a meeting of the Board of the Fund. This is the ninth summit of the heads of state of IFAS founders, and the third, which is hosted by Turkmenistan.

The first high-level meeting was held on March 26, 1993 in Kyzylorda (Republic of Kazakhstan), during which the IFAS was established and structural and organizational issues were resolved. The next Summit was conducted on January 11, 1994 in Nukus (Republic of Uzbekistan), when the first asbp was adopted and ICSD and ICWC were created. On 3 March 1995, the Board of the Fund's Executive Committee was established in Dashoguz (Turkmenistan). February 28, 1997 in Almaty (Republic of Kazakhstan) adopted the Almaty Declaration, the structure of the former Interstate Council and the actual IFAS became a single entity.

The decisions on election of the President of IFAS, on the statement of Regulations on IFAS, the Agreement on the status of IFAS and its organizations, and on measures for support of priority projects were made on April 9, 1999 in Ashgabat. By the end of 1999, organizational work was carried out to create the legal framework of EC IFAS and the conditions for its activities. On 28 December 2001, the Tashkent Declaration on cooperation was adopted in the Uzbek capital. October 6, 2002 in the Tajik capital adopted the Dushanbe Declaration, the decision on the direction of asbp-2. Its operation lasted from 2003-2010, the largest completed project was the construction of the Turkmen lake "Altyn Asyr", the first stage of which was commissioned in 2009. Turkmenistan has implemented this project at its own expense and the second phase is currently in progress. On 28 April 2009 in Almaty made a decision on the development of ASBP-3 for 2011-2015.

Over the past quarter century, IFAS has contributed to the strengthening of regional cooperation, conflict-free resolution of complex water problems. Its structures are taking measures to ensure that the issues of water distribution, environmental safety, and economic development are resolved on a parity basis, taking into account the interests of each party. Thanks to the vigorous activity of heads of States of Central Asia, the Foundation has received recognition and support from the international community, adopted within the framework of IFAS joint documents laid the Foundation for the solution of questions of improvement of the water management situation in the region.

The chairmanship of Turkmenistan in the international Fund for saving the Aral sea has been going on since 2017 and since then the efforts of our country have intensified the water dialogue in the region, which is noted by the experts of the region in this field.

Ten years ago, in 2008 signed a Resolution about giving IFAS observer status in the UN General Assembly. In order to draw the world's attention to the Aral sea problem, Turkmenistan initiated the development and adoption of the UN General Assembly Resolution "Cooperation between the United Nations and the international Fund for saving the Aral sea" in April this year.

Based on the above-mentioned documents, the Turkmen state, within the framework of its chairmanship in the Fund, made a proposal to develop a special UN Program for the Aral sea basin in order to facilitate the allocation of the Aral problem in a separate area of activity of the Community of Nations. This issue is included in the work Plan of the IFAS Executive Committee for the period of the chairmanship of Turkmenistan. The proposed document will raise the status of IFAS, give a new impetus to the implementation of sustainable development Goals in the region, and raise cooperation between the UN and IFAS to a new level.

Source: Turkmenistan: the Golden Age Online Newspaper