Today, the cotton growing is a leading branch of agro industrial complex of Turkmenistan producing more the million tons of cotton annually. Looking back to the history, one can see that cultivation of cotton underwent continuous scientific and practical development.
Growing of high productive types of this culture in the country is related with the foundation of Caspian Region of Russian Federation when cotton growing started in the Central Asia. Before that period, so called guza cotton, law producing type with small bolls, short and coarse (wool-like) fibre, was grown.
In the end of the XIX century, medium-fibre cotton, which seeds were brought from America, started to be cultivated in Murgab Valley. Cotton fields stretched along natural water sources.
To stimulate the interest to cotton growing and increase arable lands for new species, the administration of the region, located in Bayramaly, used to give the seeds to leasers and landowners for free and pay cash for delivered cotton. Further steps were related with processing of stocked raw material. For this purpose, small private gin houses with saw gins were built in Mary in 1897 and Bayramaly in 1910. Later, in the 30th of the last century, modern workshops with shaft gins for processing of raw fine-fibre cotton were built on the basis of these facilities. Together with establishment of these productions, Iolotan railway station, which soon after became regional centre and lately received the status of the city, was founded during construction of Kushka line of Caspian Railway in 1898.
There were reconstruction at Iolotan cotton ginning factory in 1937 and 1970, which allowed increasing the power of the plant. From the middle of the XX century, the development of desert territories and rapid development of cotton growing started together with construction of Karakum River.
High-capacity modern facilities, which supplemented the infrastructure of the branch during the years of independence. Every year, cotton ginning factories including the oldest facility of the etrap, start operating together with cotton harvesting. 30 � 32 thousand tons of cotton including 3.5 thousand tons of fine-fibre one are processed at the facility per year. In high harvest season, the processing of cotton is carried out in three shifts. Processed cotton fibre is purchased by textile enterprises of the country; part is sold at the Commodity and Raw Materials Exchange of Turkmenistan and exported abroad where it meets high demand. The factory also stocks 2.5 thousand tons of the seeds per year. Technical seeds are procured by Bayramaly oil extracting plants, where competitive production like high quality cotton oil is produced using modern equipment.
Source: Turkmenistan: the Golden Age Online Newspaper